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Deciduous flowering shrubs require so little attention that most homeowners don't think about pruning them until they've become an overgrown tangle of stems. Then, pruning becomes an all-afternoon affair. But besides promoting healthy growth and controlling plant size and shape, a few minutes of pruning each year results in a benefit you might not suspect: a big increase in the number of flowers and ornamental fruit — the primary reasons we grow these plants. We're not talking backbreaking labor. "You should be able to keep up with annual maintenance pruning by spending 5 to 10 minutes with each shrub," says Denny Schrock, extension specialist at the University of Illinois at Urbana.

When to Prune

The best time to prune depends on when the shrub forms its flower buds and when those buds open. Flowering shrubs fall into two categories: spring-blooming and summer-blooming.

Spring-flowering shrubs, such as lilac and forsythia, develop flower buds in the summer that will not open until the following year. Prune them immediately after flowering. If you prune too late, you will remove next year's developing buds.

Summer-flowering shrubs, such as rose-of-Sharon and oakleaf hydrangea, develop their buds during the spring growth period and the buds open into flowers that summer. Prune these shrubs during the dormant season — in late winter or early spring before the buds show green.

Set Goals

Before you make any pruning cuts, decide what you want to accomplish. With flowering shrubs, the goal is to enhance the natural form of the plant by selectively pruning branches. When done successfully, maintenance pruning won't be apparent at all.

Maintain health

Remove dead, damaged or diseased branches whenever you notice them. Prune out branches that cross and rub against other branches as well. Always cut back to the ground or to a live bud or branch to prevent further dieback.

<p>Annual pruning is the key to coaxing a peegee hydrangea into a small tree that bears prolific flowers. Here, it is combined with lower-growing perennials.</p>

Annual pruning is the key to coaxing a peegee hydrangea into a small tree that bears prolific flowers. Here, it is combined with lower-growing perennials.

Renew and control size

Thin shrubs by cutting branches back to a main branch or stem or by removing the oldest stems on mature shrubs by cutting them back to the ground. The latter encourages strong new stems and flowering. Thinning also helps control shrub height and width and decreases the need for severe pruning.

Many deciduous flowering shrubs, including viburnum, forsythia and beautyberry, respond well when one-quarter to one-third of the oldest stems are removed each year. Doing so completely renews the shrub every three to four years.

Shape

After thinning, occasional wayward or overgrown stems may need trimming back, called heading, to enhance the natural shape of the shrub.

Because heading cuts promote branching, it's important to use them prudently. Otherwise, dense growth will develop at the ends of branches and will shade out the rest of the plant, resulting in sparse foliage on the inside. For the same reason, don't head back all the branches to the same length or shear flowering shrubs into globes and boxes. This not only makes them look stemmy, stiff and awkward, but also prevents them from flowering.

Rejuvenate an old shrub

Certain shrubs, even though badly overgrown, can be restored to new vigor by cutting all of the branches back to 4 to 8 in. above ground level. The best time to do this is during the dormant season before new growth starts. The plant will be entering its most vigorous growth period so it will be most resilient.

By summer it will renew itself with healthy, vigorous growth, and within two to three years the shrub will totally fill out. There are a couple of drawbacks to this approach, however. It is usually necessary to thin the regrowth, and flowering could be delayed by as many as three years for some shrubs.

Cut back only those shrubs known to respond well, such as forsythia, honeysuckle and butterfly bush. If in doubt about a particular shrub, consult the local extension service or a good reference book.

Pruning takes courage. But flowering shrubs are forgiving, and they want to grow. As long as you know what you're trying to accomplish with each cut and when you should make the cuts, you can't go wrong.

Prune in winter or early spring

Prune just before flowers fade

Where to Find It

A.M. Leonard, Inc.

241 Fox Dr., Box 816, Dept. TH300

Piqua, OH 45356

www.amleo.com

800/543-8955

Source for Felco, Sandvik and other top-quality pruning tools.

Felco products also available at www.frostproof.com

Corona Clipper

1540 E. 6th St., Dept. TH300

Corona, CA 92879

www.coronaclipper.com

800/234-2547

Fiskars Lawn & Garden

780 Carolina St., Dept. TH300

Sauk City, WI 53583

www.fiskars.com

800/500-4849

J.H. Williams (Bahco) Tool Group

Box 2036, Dept. TH300

Scranton, PA 18501

www.bahco.com

800/828-9893

Takagi Tools

337-A Figueroa St., Dept. TH300

Wilmington, CA 90744

www.sharkcorp.com

800/891-7855

Further reading:

The American Horticultural Society Pruning & Training

by Christopher Brickell and David Joyce

DK Publishing, Inc.

New York, NY, 1996

Rodale's Successful Organic Gardening Pruning

by Kris Medic

Rodale Press

Emmaus, PA, 1995