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Is it necessary to have a pressure tank on the well pump?
Yes, but it doesn't have to be very big. I have heard of tanks as small as 6 gallons, but the larger the tank, the more efficiently the pump will run. Without at least a small tank, or an air trap of some kind, the pump will cycle on and off constantly and you will have a massive case of water hammer.
Not if it's a hand pump.
What is the pump being used for? If it's for an irrigation system no but if it's being used for a water system then the answerer is yes.
A pressure tank will make the pump's job easier so it will last longer. I'd do it on any well (except a hand pump).
If the water system is expected to maintain a static pressure when the pump is not running, a pressure tank is necessary. Typical applications include household potable water systems or fire suppression systems.
Without the pressure tank, inertia of moving water in the system when the pump starts or stops can cause the pump to surge -- on/off/on/off/on/off/on/off -- very rapidly, which can result in damage to the pump, motor, or other components of the piping system. A pressure tank -- even if very small -- serves as a surge buffer, and it must be within a few feet of the pressure switch (in terms of pipe distance).
If the water system does not need to maintain static pressure and will be controlled by means other than a pressure switch, a pressure tank is not necessary. Typical applications include irrigation sprinklers, a pond fountain, or sump pumps.
It depends on the type of pump. Most pumps for household water needs a pressure tank. Without the pressure tank you wll get water but the feed will be pulsating with the pump turning on and off every few seconds.
Even with continuous flow- sprinklers, ponds, or fountains- the pressure tank will help even out any pulsations and make it easier for the pump to maintain a relatively steady pressure which will make the pump last longer. At such a low cost, that extra bit of assurance is well worth it even if it is not absolutely necessary.