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If I increase the house pressure from 40 psi to 50 or 60 psi, will this harm or strain the well pump? My well is 660 feet deep.
It doesn't really matter how deep the well is. What matters as regards how much work the pump is doing...... is how far down it is to water........from the inlet on the pressure tank. The pump is only lifting the water above the static water level in the well.
Whether your pump can handle a 30-50 pressure switch or a 40-60 pressure switch depends upon the size of the motor, the size of the pump that motor drives, the size of the supply line and how far the pump is lifting the water.
All well pumps (be they submersible or jet pumps) have an acceptable pump curve and they will run without doing harm to themselves within the parameters of that pump curve. If you have the information regarding the manufacturer of the pump and the model of the pump.....you should be able to contact the manufacturer to get the pump curve for that particular pump. Frequently, you can find this pump curve info on their website....usually in chart style. If not, you should be able to call them for it.
I'll add that one of the hardest stresses on a well pump is too small of a pressure tank or a pressure tank that has become water-logged. (too little or no air-head left in the tank) This causes the pump to run too frequently and for too short of a period of time. Ideally, your pump should run a minimum of one minute cycles to refill the pressure tank. Shorter cycling causes the pump to overheat and can burn them out in short order.